An endometrial biopsy is a way for your doctor to take a small sample of the lining of the uterus (endometrium ). The sample is looked at under a microscope for abnormal cells. An endometrial biopsy helps your doctor find problems in the endometrium.
There are several ways to do an endometrial biopsy. The day before the procedure, you will be given a pill to open your cervix for the entry to the uterus.
These are a few different ways:
- A soft device shaped like a straw (pipette) to suction a small sample of lining from the uterus. This method is fast and may cause some cramping.
- An electronic suction device (Vabra aspiration). This method can be uncomfortable.
- A spray of liquid (jet irrigation) to wash off some of the tissue that lines the uterus. A brush may be used to remove some of the lining before the washing is done.
- A Hysteroscopy – a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus. and collect a biopsy.
- If the endometrial biopsy sample doesn’t provide enough tissue, or if the biopsy suggests cancer but the results are uncertain, a D&C must be done. It is an outpatient procedure, the opening of the cervix is enlarged (dilated) and a special instrument is used to scrape tissue from inside the uterus. This may be done with or without a hysteroscopy.This procedure takes about an hour and may require general anesthesia (where you are asleep) or conscious sedation (given medicine into a vein to make you drowsy).